Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of the Peloponnese

by Floros Flouros

An analysis of Turkish politics and prospects for democratization under Erdogan's leadership governments in the recent past years is presented in this paper. It is important how the current president of the Turkish democracy, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, succeeded to direct and manage the AKP party during the last decades and he had led it to continuous victories during all the elections in his country. The Turkish type of secularism has been a successful project that allowed Turkish citizens to consider religion as a system of belief and morality and not as a prescriptive set of political rules. Kemalism had been linked with conservatism and has lost the ability to understand the society and its needs, since it used to act only as the protector of secularism against an obvious Islamic danger. The AKP had not directly confronted with the secularist establishment while it followed a clever strategy in de-emphasizing ideology and in engaging with Kemalism on its own terms.

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Georgian Institute of Public Affairs

by Sophio Gabelaia

While all types of nations bear influence on the international system to some extent, the development of global political events is largely dependent on hegemonic and powerful states' decisions. In such conditions, smaller and weaker states often lose the freedom to exercise their will and are unable to ensure national security. However, there are so-called third world countries that have internal political, economic and social challenges more often on their daily agenda than the issue of establishing sovereignty. The definition of a weak state is not unequivocal. The political power of a state is subject to complex assessment. A state that cannot realize its own forces independently and whose authority/influence in the global political arena is significantly low may be considered a weak state. Each state, taking into consideration its specific challenges, works differently on its own survival strategy, giving rise to a rather chaotic reality in the international arena. The Republic of Georgia was one of the first bold weak states. Although Russian influence was intensely present in its political life in the 1990s, Georgia openly directed its foreign policy towards the West after achieving independence. As Kenneth Waltz stated: "Freedom is implied in the word 'independence' but so is the necessity of self-reliance" (Waltz, 1954, p. 214).

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